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North Carolina Brewers’ Cup Back for Second Year

North Carolina Brewers’ Cup Back for Second Year

The best brews will be featured at the North Caroline State Fair in October

The second annual NC Brewers’ Cup will take place at the North Caroline State Fair in Raleigh, N.C.

Back for round two, the North Carolina Brewers’ Guild announced on Sunday, July 21 that it’s time for professionals and homebrewers alike to start preparing for the second annual North Carolina Brewers’ Cup. The competition is set to take place in Raleigh during the North Caroline State Fair from Oct. 17 to 27.

The Guild announced that this year’s competition will feature a few adjustments from last year’s, including an expansion in the number of beer categories from 16 to 23, online-only submissions, and the ability for participants to print labels from the NC State Fair’s competition page.

Plans for the competition are still coming into place. In addition to their call for applicants, the Cup is also looking for qualified (BJCP-certified, preferred) beer judges. Those interested in learning more about the position can register and check for updates on the Cup’s website.

Entries will be accepted from Aug. 1 to 19 at drop-off locations that are still to be determined. Prospective applicants are encouraged to keep an eye on the Brewers’ Cup website for updates.


Better Booze Through Science

All the (weird) things you can do to liquor to make it taste great.

Milk & Honey, the cocktail bar in a New York City apartment building with an unlisted phone number, was the first to fire off the great speakeasy trend when it opened back in 1999. All of a sudden, in-the-know bartenders stopped making appletinis and got serious about rules and classic cocktails. Then the international bartender convention Tales of the Cocktail began in 2002, and "Googling" became a word, and bar trends became as portable as suspenders and hats.

Food science has moved from the kitchen to the bar

Today, several thousand bartenders all over the country have put their own spin on the classics&mdashchanging the chemistry of cocktails using milk and nut butter and eggs, and even making drinks in coffee brewers and whipped-cream canisters. Food science has moved from the kitchen to the bar, and the resulting concoctions taste better (and crazier) than ever. It's bedlam, and the next step is bringing it to your house.

Filter your booze with milk

Clarifying milk to remove bitterness from cocktails is not a new technique. It's been around since at least the 1700s, when Benjamin Franklin employed it in a cocktail called milk punch to take the edge off brandy potent enough to varnish a table. It works like this: When you mix milk, liquor, and a small amount of citrus, the milk proteins bond to astringent compounds such as polyphenols (bitter oak notes and tannins) in the liquor, then curdle. Filter the curds off and you end up with a clear, mellow cocktail that feels round and silky when you drink it. "What's left over in the bottom will have whey in it," says Dave Arnold, the bartender who pioneered modern milk-washing in his book, Liquid Intelligence: The Art and Science of the Perfect Cocktail. "So if you shake that with an egg white, like in a milk-washed whiskey sour situation, the froth will blow up like the head on a Guinness, which is awesome."

Use a Whipped Cream Canister

Colleen Hughes, bartender at Haberdish in Charlotte, North Carolina, learned early on that not every variety of alcohol is available everywhere. "I would drive to other states to find the ingredients in cocktail books just to find out what they tasted like, and then figure out how to re-create that flavor in the kitchen," she says. One way Hughes did this was to infuse liquors using an iSi cream whipper. "Years ago I read Liquid Intelligence, by Dave Arnold, and that was where I learned about the iSi, which got me started in developing a bunch of one-note tinctures I could play around with," she says. To do it, put any strong alcohol (vodka works well) in an iSi cream whipper with pretty much any food (coffee, cucumber, melon, ginger, etc.) and charge it twice with nitrous oxide. The pressure will force the liquor into the solids. Releasing the lid will boil it back out.

Recipe: Honey Bee and the Buzzing Monk

by Colleen Hughes, Haberdish, Charlotte, North Carolina

Ingredients

&bull 2 oz Sipsmith London dry gin (or any good dry gin that doesn't have an overwhelming juniper taste&mdashtry Citadelle or Sutler's)

&bull ½ oz yellow chartreuse Szechuan-flower tincture&dagger

&bull 1 cup sourwood honey (Online at savannahbee.com, or use any good, light-colored honey)

&bull 20 buzz buttons, roughly chopped (You can buy these on Amazon.)

&bull 1 ½ cup 100-proof vodka (or other neutral high-proof spirit, such as Technical Reserve, page 79)

Instructions

1 / To make the honey syrup, cut the vanilla bean down the center and scrape out the seeds. Combine bean and seeds, saffron, and honey in a glass jar and allow to infuse at room temperature for 10 days. Remove the vanilla bean pod, add sugar and hot water and stir until combined. Store in the refrigerator.

2 / To make the Szechuan tincture, place chopped buzz buttons and vodka in a half liter iSi whipped-cream canister. Charge once with nitrous oxide, shake, then add a second charge and shake again. Allow to infuse for 1 hour at room temperature.

3 / To dispense the iSi, hold the infuser upright and hold a plastic container over the top to catch any spray that might come out. Fully de-gas and then open the top and allow it to rest until you no longer hear the sounds of gas bubbles releasing, about 15 minutes.

4 / Strain all flower particles out of the tincture through a fine-mesh strainer. Combine equal parts Szechuan tincture with yellow chartreuse. Store at room temperature in a sealed container for up to one year.

5 / To make the cocktail, shake the gin, lemon juice, and honey syrup until thoroughly chilled and strain into a chilled cocktail glass. Serve the Szechuan-infused yellow chartreuse on the side.

Flavor your booze with oil!

Fat-washing is similar to milk-washing, only instead of taking flavors out of booze, you put them in. This works because alcohol is both hydrophilic and hydrophobic, so it can bond to both water-based aromatics (fruit infusions), and oil-based ones (chemicals in bacon).

Cashew-butter rye

&rarr Spread about ¼ inch cashew butter on a rectangular baking dish and refrigerate for about 20 minutes to let it firm up. Pour about 1 inch rye over that and refrigerate for about an hour. Pour off the rye and run it through a coffee filter to remove any last globules of oil.

&mdashColleen Hughes, Haberdish, Charlotte

Bacon bourbon

&rarr Cook bacon over medium-low heat until crispy. Let cool. Mix about 4 oz of fat and a 750-mL bottle of liquor in a deep plastic Tupperware. Shake to combine, wait an hour, then place the container in the freezer. After another hour, punch a hole in the layer of fat that congeals at the top with a chopstick and pour out the liquor. Run through a coffee filter.

&mdashDave Arnold, author of Liquid Intelligence

Cinnamon-vanilla brown-butter rum

&rarr Lightly toast a couple of cinnamon sticks in a pan, then add 8 oz butter, a vanilla bean, and ½ tsp brown sugar and cook until the butter melts. Remove the cinnamon sticks and vanilla bean and mix the butter and rum in a plastic container. Follow the same technique as for the bacon bourbon.

Hack Your Coffee Maker

"The principle of siphon brewing comes down to the expansion and contraction of the vapor," says Miguel Lancha, cocktail innovator at chef José Andrés's Barmini in Washington, D.C. "When you heat the liquid, it transforms into vapor and needs more space, so pressure forces it into the top vessel. Then, when the heat is removed, the vapor cools and brings all the flavor down into the drink." This is how a siphon brewer makes coffee, but it works the same way with teas, citrus peels, fruits, and whole spices. There are lots of siphon-style coffee brewers on the market, but Lancha recommends the Hario Technica ($70) because it creates the best seal.

Recipe: Roughly 9400

by Miguel Lancha, BarMini, Washington, D.C.

Bottom vessel

&bull 1 ½ oz Koch Tepextate mescal (or any good unaged mescal)

&bull ½ oz Appleton Rare Blend 12-year rum (or any other good aged rum, preferably from Jamaica)

&bull 2 dashes Fee Brothers barrel-aged bitters (or any other barrel-aged bitters)

Upper vessel

&bull 2 Tbsp chopped fresh ginger

Optional topping

*Ginger Syrup

&bull 1 2-inch piece peeled ginger

1 / To make the ginger syrup, combine one part water with one part sugar over medium heat and stir until the sugar dissolves. Let cool. Peel and chop the ginger, and blend it with the simple syrup in a blender. Strain out the ginger pieces and keep the liquid in the refrigerator.

2 / Combine the mescal, rum, syrup, bitters, and water in the bottom vessel of a coffee siphon.

3 / Add the dry chai tea, ginger, lemon peel, and flowers to the upper vessel of the siphon.

4 / Light the fire and let boil for 2 ½ minutes. Remove heat to bring the liquid back down. Pour into a mug and garnish with lemon peel.

5 / While the drink cools, combine the cream, evaporated milk, condensed milk, rum, and salt. Shake hard for 7 seconds, then heat in the microwave for 25 seconds. Serve 2 to 3 ounces on the side, like you would cream for tea.

Make Tinctures!

To truly experiment with DIY cocktail creation, you've got to start with nothing, and a new product called Technical Reserve is the most scientifically composed bottle of nothing you can buy. Flavorless, odorless, and colorless, with zero impurities and tremendous solvent capability, the neutral 191.2- proof (95.6 percent ABV) spirit is an azeotrope: a perfectly balanced mixture of ethanol and water that cannot be separated by further distillation. It's a high-alcohol blank slate. "Technical Reserve doesn't impart flavors. It extracts them," says Ronak Parikh, head of growth and operations. "We think of it as a tool." There are lots of ways to use it. We made tinctures. Unlike bitters&mdashhugely complex botanical mixtures including bittering agents like wormwood and gentian root that take weeks to make&mdashtinctures are concentrated notes of a single ingredient, some ready in an afternoon. You add a few drops to a drink, and the drink is transformed.

Anyone can do this. There's a biological reason your mouth and nose are connected: So that you can make tinctures. Finding the right balance between solid and liquid&mdashbetween the extractable flavor and the solvent&mdashis a matter of guess, test, revise. Here's what we came up with:

1 / Use small, clean, dry jars with tight-fitting lids, like spice jars.

2 / The ingredients you are extracting need to be completely covered by the Technical Reserve.

3 / Gently shake the mixture at the beginning and then every hour or so.

4 / Work in small portions until you get the ratio right and take good tasting notes, estimating and adjusting as necessary.

5 / Start testing your flavors on the early side (a few hours) rather than later.

6 / When the mixtures taste ready&mdashas in good&mdashto you, strain through a clean coffee filter and store in clean jars. A good option: stainless-steel cone drip with double-mesh filter.

7 / When you're ready to add your tinctures to a cocktail, use an eyedropper. Not because you're a pretentious jerk, but because you're practical. This is concentrated flavor in 191.2-proof alcohol. Too much will throw the balance of any cocktail out of whack.

If you've going for:

. . . Something green and woodsy in your gin and tonic, or want to mess with your classic gin martini: 2 Tbsp rosemary needles (fresh, approximately 4 stalks) and 2 ounces Technical Reserve. (You might snip the needles with a scissor so they will be easier to submerge.)

. . . A little Southwest in your Bloody Mary, or want to complicate a michelada: 1 ancho chile (dried poblano), snipped into pieces, seeds included, and 2 ounces TR. If you want more heat, just slide up the Scoville scale, indicator of a chile's pungency. For example, the ancho is 1,000 to 1,500 heat units and the ghost pepper is over 1,000,000 heat units, with many choices in between.

. . . A deeply smoky manhattan, like the world's most delicious ashtray: 1 Tbsp Lapsang souchong tea (loose leaves, quality is everything) and 2 ounces TR.

. . . Floral and fancy in your greyhound or French 75: 2 Tbsp dried lavender buds and 2 ounces TR. Add to a sparkling Cava or mix a few drops with simple syrup for your lemonade or iced tea.&mdash Francine Maroukian


Travel Guide to Wilmington, North Carolina

History: European roots run deep in this town. Originally an English settlement, the town was named for Spencer Compton, the Earl of Wilmington. The town quickly prospered as a port city with Mariners and second and third sons of English nobility flocking to the area. During the Revolutionary War, the town was seized and occupied by the British. The rise of the railroad caused the town to continue to prosper until the Civil War. Once again the town was seized and occupied this time by the Union army. The town continued to prosper until after World War II when the railroad moved their company headquarters. Today the town is thriving thanks to new industry and the movie industry, earning Wilmington the nickname “Hollywood East.” Fun Fact: The Alton Lennon Federal Building and Courthouse was where many of the scenes from the television series Matlock was filmed.


Courage pick up second win in NWSL Challenge Cup with 3-2 victory over Racing Louisville FC

LOUISVILLE, K.Y. (April 26, 2021) - The North Carolina Courage returned to their winning ways on Monday night, defeating expansion team Racing Louisville FC 3-2 in the final minutes of match play. With the win, the Courage now boast six points, edging into second place in Challenge Cup standings with a 2-0-1 record. Goals from Kristen Hamilton and Debinha would lift the Courage over their opponent, with an own goal sealing the victory.

Following a largely defensive start to the first half, Racing Louisville bagged the first goal of the match when a clearance by the Courage defense was intercepted by Erin Simon just outside of the eighteen. Receiving the ball at her feet, Simon played in a cross that found the head of forward CeCe Kizer, who scored to give Louisville a 1-0 advantage in the 24th minute.

Nearly tying the game in the 31st minute, a goal by Lynn Williams was determined to be offside and subsequently called back, maintaining Louisville’s 1-0 lead. The deficit would be temporary, however, as the Courage would convert an equalizer when awarded a corner kick just two minutes later. The corner would be taken by Debinha, who started the play by tapping in a short pass to Carson Pickett. On her first touch, Pickett sent in a cross that met Kristen Hamilton in the air. Redirecting the ball with a calculated header that grazed the back post, Hamilton tallied her second goal of the tournament to equalize for the Courage, deadlocking the score at 1-1.

Raring to take the lead from the start of the second half, the Courage offense continued to assert their dominance with an attack that began with Lynn Williams. In a true show of her agility on the ball and composure in the attacking third, Williams left a defender in her wake as she played in a cross intended for Jessica McDonald that was instead cleared by the Louisville defense. The weak clearance attempt was ultimately won back by McDonald, who slotted a pass to Debinha outside of the eighteen. Taking a single touch, Debinha buried a shot into the upper ninety to give the Courage the upper hand in the 57th minute, 2-1.

Louisville forward Jorian Baucom would equalize for the home team in the 75th minute, flicking in a cross from Kizer to tie the game once again, this time at two goals apiece. Persistent effort from Courage offensive talents Williams and Debinha would pay off just ten minutes later when Williams laid a ball off into space for Debinha in the box. Immediately, Debinha fired off a shot attempt that was initially deflected by Louisville keeper Michelle Betos. Unfortunately for Betos, the save would ricochet off a defender and result in an own goal, with Debinha there to ensure the game-winner ended up in the back of the net.

Paul Riley’s team will look to remain in the win column as they return home to take on the Orlando Pride this Saturday.

Up Next: After a brief stint on the road, the North Carolina Courage will return to Sahlen’s Stadium at WakeMed Soccer Park on May 1 at 7:30 p.m. ET to face off against the Orlando Pride in the final match of the Challenge Cup group stage.

Box Score:
NCC (4-4-2): Katelyn Rowland Merritt Mathias (Lindsay Agnew – 86’), Schulyer DeBree, Kaleigh Kurtz, Carson Pickett Denise O’Sullivan, Meredith Speck (Cari Roccaro – 69’), Kristen Hamilton (Hailie Mace – 69’), Debinha (Ryan Williams – 87’) Lynn Williams, Jessica McDonald (C)

Subs Not Used: Casey Murphy, Rylee Baisded, Diane Caldwell, Peyton Perea, Taylor Smith, Ryan Williams

LOU (4-5-1): Michelle Betos Emily Fox, Brooke Hendrix, Kaleigh Riehl, Erin Simon (Julia Ashley – 70’) Lauren Milliet (Taylor Otto – 83’), Freja Olofsson, Yuki Nagasato (Jorian Baucom – 74’), Savannah Mccaskill, Emina Ekic (Katie McClure - 70’) CeCe Kizer

Subs Not Used: Noelle Higginson, Vanessa Kara, Katie Lund, Nealy Martin, Shelby Money

Goals:
NCC: 33’ - Kristen Hamilton (Carson Pickett) 57’ – Debinha (Jessica McDonald) 85’ – Julia Ashley (Own Goal Louisville)
LOU: 24’ – CeCe Kizer (Erin Simon) 76’ – Jorian Baucom


Contents

The origins of the Challenge era come from the method of play of the Amateur Hockey Association of Canada prior to 1893. From 1887 to 1893, the league did not play a round-robin format, but rather challenges between teams of the association that year, with the winner of the series being the 'interim' champion, with the final challenge winner becoming the league champion for the year. The Stanley Cup kept the tradition going, but added league championships as another way that a team could win the trophy. If a team in the same league as the current champion won the league championship, it would then inherit the Cup, without a challenge. The only time this rule was not followed was in 1904, when the Ottawa Senators club withdrew from its league, the CAHL. The trustees ruled that the Cup stayed with Ottawa, instead of the CAHL league champion.

During the challenge cup period, none of the leagues that played for the trophy had a formal playoff system to decide their respective champions whichever team finished in first place after the regular season won the league title. [2] A playoff would only be played if teams tied for first-place in their leagues at the end of the regular season. Challenge games were played until 1912 at any time during hockey season by challenges approved and/or ordered by the Stanley Cup trustees. In 1912, Cup trustees declared that it was only to be defended at the end of the champion team's regular season. [3]

In 1908, the Allan Cup was introduced as the trophy for Canada's amateurs, as the Stanley Cup became a symbol of professional hockey supremacy. [4]

This table lists the outcome of all Stanley Cup wins, including successful victories and defenses in challenges, and league championships for the challenge era.

Date Winning team Coach Losing team Playoff format Score Winning goal
March 17, 1893 Montreal Hockey Club (AHAC) Harry Shaw (manager) 1893 AHAC champions, no challengers
March 22, 1894 Montreal Hockey Club (AHAC) Ottawa HC (AHAC) Single-elimination
(1894 AHAC championship playoff)
3–1 Billy Barlow (9:00, third quarter)
March 9, 1895 Montreal Hockey Club (AHAC) [A] Queen's University (OHA) Single-elimination 5–1
March 9, 1895 Montreal Victorias (AHAC) [A] Mike Grant (captain) 1895 AHAC Champion
February 14, 1896 Winnipeg Victorias (MHA) Jack Armytage (captain) Montreal Victorias (AHAC) Single-elimination 2–0 Jack Armytage (10:00, first half) [5] [6]
February 29, 1896 1896 MHA champion [7]
December 30, 1896 Montreal Victorias (AHAC) Mike Grant (captain) Winnipeg Victorias (MHA) Single-elimination 6–5 Ernie McLea (28:00, second half)
March 6, 1897 1897 AHAC Champion
December 27, 1897 Ottawa Capitals (CCHA) Single-elimination [B] 15–2
March 5, 1898 Frank Richardson-playing 1898 AHAC Champion
February 15–18, 1899 Montreal Victorias (CAHL) Winnipeg Victorias (MHA) Two-game total goals 5–3 Robert MacDougall (second half)
March 4, 1899 Montreal Shamrocks (CAHL) Barney Dunphy 1899 CAHL Champion
March 14, 1899 Queen's University (OHA) Single-elimination 6–2 Harry Trihey
February 12–15, 1900 Winnipeg Victorias (MHA) Best-of-three 2–1 Harry Trihey (second half)
March 7, 1900 Halifax Crescents (MaPHL) 2–0 (10–2, 11–0)
March 10, 1900 1900 CAHL Champion
January 29–31, 1901 Winnipeg Victorias (MHA) Dan Bain (captain) Montreal Shamrocks (CAHL) Best-of-three 2–0 Dan Bain (4:00, OT)
February 19, 1901 Winnipeg HC (MHA) Single-elimination
(1901 MHA championship)
4–3 [8]
January 21–23, 1902 Toronto Wellingtons (OHA) Best-of-three 2–0 Fred Scanlon (9:00, second half)
March 1902 1902 MHA Champion
March 13–17, 1902 Montreal HC (CAHL) Clarence McKerrow Winnipeg Victorias (MHA) Best-of-three 2–1 Jack Marshall (first half)
January 29–31,
February 2–4, 1903
Desse Browne Winnipeg Victorias (MHA) Best-of-three 2–1 [C] Tom Phillips
March 7–10, 1903 Ottawa HC (CAHL) Alf Smith Montreal Victorias (CAHL) Two-game total goals
(1903 CAHL championship playoff)
9–1 Suddy Gilmour (4:34, first half, second game)
March 12–14, 1903 Rat Portage Thistles (MNWHA) Two-game total goals 10–4 Frank McGee (8:20, first half)
December 30, 1903, January 1–4, 1904 Alf Smith-playing Winnipeg Rowing Club (MHA) Best-of-three 2–1 Frank McGee (11:00, second half)
February 23–25, 1904 Ottawa HC [D] Toronto Marlboros (OHA) 2–0 Arthur Moore (9:38, first half)
March 2, 1904 Montreal Wanderers (FAHL) Two-game total goals [E]
March 9–11, 1904 Brandon Wheat City (MNWHA) Best-of-three 2–0 Frank McGee (18:00, first half)
January 13–16, 1905 Ottawa HC (FAHL) Dawson City Nuggets 2–0 Harry Westwick (12:15, first half)
March 3, 1905 1905 FAHL Champion
March 7–9–11, 1905 Rat Portage Thistles (MHL) Best-of-three 2–1 Frank McGee
February 27–28, 1906 Queen's University (OHA) 2–0 Harvey Pulford (10:00, second half)
March 6–8, 1906 Smiths Falls HC (FAHL) 2–0 Frank McGee (17:45, first half)
March 14–17, 1906 Montreal Wanderers (ECAHA) Cecil Blachford-playing Ottawa HC (ECAHA) Two-game total goals
(1906 ECAHA championship playoff)
12–10 Lester Patrick
December 27–29, 1906 New Glasgow Cubs (MaHL) Two-game total goals 17–5
January 21–23, 1907 Kenora Thistles (MPHL) James Link Montreal Wanderers (ECAHA) 12–8 Roxy Beaudro
March 16–18, 1907 Brandon Wheat City (MPHL) Best-of-three
(1907 MPHL championship)
2–0 Fred Whitcroft (19:00, first half) [9]
March 23–25, 1907 Montreal Wanderers (ECAHA) Lester Patrick (captain) Kenora Thistles (MPHL) Two-game total goals 12–8 Ernest "Moose" Johnson
January 9–13, 1908 Cecil Blachford (captain) Ottawa Victorias (FAHL) 22–4 Frank Glass (25:00, first half, first game) [10]
March 7, 1908 1908 ECAHA Champions
March 10–12, 1908 Winnipeg Maple Leafs (MPHL) Two-game total goals 20–8
March 14, 1908 Toronto (OPHL) Single-elimination 6–4 Ernest "Moose" Johnson
December 28–30, 1908 Edmonton Hockey Club (AAHA) Two-game total goals 13–10 Walter Smaill (33:45, second half, second game) [11]
March 6, 1909 Ottawa HC (ECHA) Pete Green 1909 ECHA champions
January 5–7, 1910 Galt HC (OPHL) Two-game total goals 15–4 Hamby Shore (10:10, first half, first game) [12]
January 18–20, 1910 Edmonton Hockey Club (AAHA) 21–11 Bruce Stuart (23:45, first half)
March 9, 1910 Montreal Wanderers (NHA) Frank Glass (captain) 1910 NHA Champion
March 12, 1910 Berlin Dutchmen (OPHL) Single-elimination 7–3 Harry Hyland (22:00, first half)
March 10, 1911 Ottawa HC (NHA) Pete Green 1911 NHA Champions
March 13, 1911 Galt HC (OPHL) Single-elimination 7–4 Marty Walsh (5:00, third)
March 16, 1911 Port Arthur Bearcats
(New Ontario Hockey League)
13–4 Marty Walsh (4:30, second)
March 5, 1912 Quebec Bulldogs (NHA) Charles Nolan 1912 NHA Champions
March 11–13, 1912 Moncton Victorias (MaPHL) Best-of-three 2–0 Joe Malone (18:00, first)
March 5, 1913 Joe Malone (captain) 1913 NHA Champions
March 8–10, 1913 Sydney Millionaires (MaPHL) Two-game total goals 20–5 Tommy Smith (3:10, second, first game) [13]
March 7–11, 1914 Toronto Hockey Club (NHA) Jack Marshall (playing-manager) Montreal Canadiens (NHA) Two-game total goals
(1914 NHA championship playoff)
6–2 Scotty Davidson (2:00, third, second game) [14]
March 14–17–19, 1914 Toronto Hockey Club (NHA) Jack Marshall (playing-manager) Victoria Aristocrats (PCHA) Best-of-five 3–0 [F] Harry Cameron (7:00, third) [15]
Notes

^ A. Although the Montreal Victorias won the AHAC title in 1895, the Stanley Cup trustees had already accepted a challenge from the 1894 Cup champion Montreal HC and Queen's University. As a compromise, the trustees decided that if the Montreal HC won the challenge match, the Victorias would become the Stanley Cup champions. The Montreals eventually won the game, 5–1, and their crosstown rivals were awarded the Cup.

^ B. Intended to be a best-of-three series, Ottawa Capitals withdrew their challenge after the first game.

^ C. The January 31 (a Saturday) game was tied 2–2 at midnight and the Mayor of Westmount refused to allow play to continue on Sunday. The game was played on February 2 (a Monday) and the January 31 game was considered to be void. [16]

^ D. For most of 1904, the Ottawa Hockey Club was not affiliated with any league.

^ E. The Montreal Wanderers were disqualified as the result of a dispute. After game one ended tied at the end of regulation, 5–5, the Wanderers refused to play overtime with the current referee, and then subsequently refused to play the next game of the series in Ottawa.

^ F. During the series, it was revealed that the Victoria club had not filed a formal challenge. A letter arrived from the Stanley Cup trustees on March 17, stating that the trustees would not let the Stanley Cup travel west, as they did not consider Victoria a proper challenger because they had not formally notified the trustees. [17] However, on March 18, Trustee William Foran stated that it was a misunderstanding. PCHA president Frank Patrick had not filed a challenge because he had expected Emmett Quinn, president of the NHA to make all of the arrangements in his role as hockey commissioner, whereas the trustees thought they were being deliberately ignored. In any case, all arrangements had been ironed out and the Victoria challenge was accepted. [18] [19]

  • Coleman, Charles L. (1964). The Trail of the Stanley Cup, vol. 1, 1893–1926 inc. Sherbrooke, Quebec: Sherbrooke Daily Record Company Limited.
  • Montreal Gazette
  • Ottawa Citizen
  • Ottawa Journal
  • Winnipeg Tribune

Several days after the Victoria Aristocrats – Toronto Hockey Club series, Stanley Cup trustee William Foran wrote to NHA president Emmett Quinn that the trustees are "perfectly satisfied to allow the representatives of the three pro leagues (NHA, PCHA, and Maritime) to make all arrangements each season as to the series of matches to be played for the Cup." The Maritime league did not challenge for cup in 1914, and folded after the 1915 season. [20] The Stanley Cup championship finals alternated between the East and the West each year, with games played alternately under NHA or PCHA rules. [21] The Cup trustees agreed to this new arrangement, because after the Allan Cup became the highest prize for amateur hockey teams in Canada, the trustees had become dependent on the top two professional leagues to bolster the prominence of the trophy. [22] [ incomplete short citation ] After the New Westminster Royal moved to Portland in the summer of 1914 becoming the Portland Rosebuds, an American-based team, the trustees issued a statement that the Cup was no longer for the best team in Canada, but now for the best team in the world. [21] In March 1916, the Rosebuds became the first American team to play in the Stanley Cup championship final. [23] [ incomplete short citation ] In 1917, the Seattle Metropolitans became the first American team to win the Cup. [24] After that season, the NHA suspended operations and the National Hockey League (NHL) took its place. [21]

In 1919, the Spanish influenza epidemic forced the Montreal Canadiens and the Seattle Metropolitans to cancel their series tied at 2–2–1, marking the first time the Stanley Cup was not awarded. [25]

The format for the Stanley Cup championship changed in 1922, with the creation of the Western Canada Hockey League (WCHL). Now three leagues competed for the Cup and this necessitated a semi-final series between two league champions, with the third having a bye directly to the final. [26] In 1924, the PCHA folded and only the Vancouver and Victoria teams entered the WCHL. With the loss of the PCHA, the championship reverted to a single series. [27] After their win in 1925, the Victoria Cougars became the last team outside the NHL to win the Stanley Cup. [28] For the 1925–26 season the WCHL was renamed the Western Hockey League (WHL). With the Victoria Cougars' loss in 1926, it would be the last time a non-NHL team competed for the Stanley Cup.

Numbers in parentheses in the table indicate the number of times that team has appeared in the Stanley Cup Finals, as well as each respective teams' Stanley Cup Finals record to date.

Year Winning team Coach Games Losing team Coach Winning goal
1915 Vancouver Millionaires (PCHA) (1, 1–0) Frank Patrick-playing 3–0 Ottawa Senators (NHA) (1, 0–1) Frank Shaughnessy (manager) Barney Stanley (5:30, second)
1916 Montreal Canadiens (NHA) (1, 1–0) Newsy Lalonde-playing 3–2 Portland Rosebuds (PCHA) (1, 0–1) Edward Savage (manager) George Prodgers (17:20, third)
1917 Seattle Metropolitans (PCHA) (1, 1–0) Pete Muldoon 3–1 Montreal Canadiens (NHA) (2, 1–1) Newsy Lalonde-playing Bernie Morris (7:55, first)
1918 Toronto Arenas [29] (NHL) (1, 1–0) Dick Carroll 3–2 Vancouver Millionaires (PCHA) (2, 1–1) Frank Patrick-playing Corb Denneny (10:30, third)
1919 Montreal Canadiens (NHL) vs. Seattle Metropolitans (PCHA) – Series cancelled after the fifth game because of the flu epidemic – Stanley Cup not awarded
1920 Ottawa Senators (NHL) (2, 1–1) Pete Green 3–2 Seattle Metropolitans (PCHA) (3, 1–1) Pete Muldoon Jack Darragh (5:00, third)
1921 Ottawa Senators (NHL) (3, 2–1) 3–2 Vancouver Millionaires (PCHA) (3, 1–2) Frank Patrick-playing Jack Darragh (9:40, second)
1922 Toronto St. Patricks (NHL) (2, 2–0) George O'Donoghue 3–2 Vancouver Millionaires (PCHA) (4, 1–3) Babe Dye (4:20, first)
1923 Ottawa Senators (NHL) (4, 3–1) Pete Green 2–0 Edmonton Eskimos (WCHL) (1, 0–1) Ken McKenzine Punch Broadbent (11:23, first)
1924 Montreal Canadiens (NHL) (4, 2–1) Léo Dandurand 2–0 Calgary Tigers (WCHL) (1, 0–1) Eddie Oatman-playing Howie Morenz (4:55, first)
1925 Victoria Cougars (WCHL) (1, 1–0) Lester Patrick 3–1 Montreal Canadiens (NHL) (5, 2–2) Léo Dandurand Gizzy Hart (2:35, second)
1926 Montreal Maroons (NHL) (1, 1–0) Eddie Gerard 3–1 Victoria Cougars (WHL) (2, 1–1) Lester Patrick Nels Stewart (2:50, second)

When the WHL folded in 1926 its remaining assets were acquired by the NHL, making it the only remaining league with teams competing for the Cup. Other leagues and clubs have issued challenges, but from that year forward no non-NHL team has played for it, leading it to become the de facto championship trophy of the NHL. [27] In 1947 the NHL reached an agreement with trustees P. D. Ross and Cooper Smeaton to grant control of the Cup to the NHL, allowing the league itself to reject challenges from other leagues that may have wished to play for the Cup. [30] [31] A 2006 Ontario Superior Court case found that the trustees had gone against Lord Stanley's conditions in the 1947 agreement. [32] The NHL has agreed to allow other teams to play for the Cup should the league not be operating, as was the case in the 2004–05 NHL lockout. [31]

Since 1927, the league's playoff format, deciding which teams advanced to the Stanley Cup Finals, has changed multiple times. In some systems that were previously used, playoff teams were seeded regardless of division or conference. From 1942 to 1967 the Cup was competed for by the league's six teams, also known as the Original Six. After the 1967 NHL Expansion, the Stanley Cup was competed for by the winners of each conference. Since 1982, the Finals have been played between the league's conference playoff champions. As of the 2020 Stanley Cup Finals, the Campbell/Western champions have gone a combined 111–101 in the Finals against the Wales/Eastern champions (winning 20 of 38 series).

Numbers in parentheses in the table indicate the number of times that team has appeared in the Stanley Cup Finals, as well as each respective team's Stanley Cup Finals record to date.

Year Winning team Coach Games Losing team Coach Winning goal
1927 Ottawa Senators (C) (5, 4–1) Dave Gill 2–0–2 Boston Bruins (A) (1, 0–1) Art Ross Cy Denneny (7:30, second)
1928 New York Rangers (A) (1, 1–0) Lester Patrick-playing 3–2 Montreal Maroons (C) (2, 1–1) Eddie Gerard Frank Boucher (3:35, third)
1929 Boston Bruins (A) (2, 1–1) Cy Denneny-playing 2–0 New York Rangers (A) (2, 1–1) Lester Patrick Bill Carson (18:02, third)
1930 Montreal Canadiens (C) (6, 3–2) Cecil Hart 2–0 Boston Bruins (A) (3, 1–2) Art Ross Howie Morenz (1:00, second)
1931 Montreal Canadiens (C) (7, 4–2) 3–2 Chicago Black Hawks (A) (1, 0–1) Dick Irvin Johnny Gagnon ( 9:59, second)
1932 Toronto Maple Leafs (C) (3, 3–0) Dick Irvin 3–0 New York Rangers (A) (3, 1–2) Lester Patrick Ace Bailey (15:07, third)
1933 New York Rangers (A) (4, 2–2) Lester Patrick 3–1 Toronto Maple Leafs (C) (4, 3–1) Dick Irvin Bill Cook (7:34, OT)
1934 Chicago Black Hawks (A) (2, 1–1) Tommy Gorman 3–1 Detroit Red Wings (A) (1, 0–1) Jack Adams Mush March (10:05, second OT)
1935 Montreal Maroons (C) (2, 2–1) 3–0 Toronto Maple Leafs (C) (5, 3–2) Dick Irvin Baldy Northcott (16:18, second)
1936 Detroit Red Wings (A) (2, 1–1) Jack Adams 3–1 Toronto Maple Leafs (C) (6, 3–3) Pete Kelly (9:45, third)
1937 Detroit Red Wings (A) (3, 2–1) 3–2 New York Rangers (A) (5, 2–3) Lester Patrick Marty Barry (19:22, first)
1938 Chicago Black Hawks (A) (3, 2–1) Bill Stewart 3–1 Toronto Maple Leafs (C) (7, 3–4) Dick Irvin Carl Voss (16:45, second)
1939 Boston Bruins (4, 2–2) Art Ross 4–1 Toronto Maple Leafs (8, 3–5) Roy Conacher (17:54, second)
1940 New York Rangers (6, 3–3) Frank Boucher 4–2 Toronto Maple Leafs (9, 3–6) Bryan Hextall (2:07, OT)
1941 Boston Bruins (5, 3–2) Cooney Weiland 4–0 Detroit Red Wings (4, 2–2) Jack Adams Bobby Bauer (8:43, second)
1942 Toronto Maple Leafs (10, 4–6) Hap Day 4–3 Detroit Red Wings (5, 2–3) Jack Adams Pete Langelle (9:48, third)
1943 Detroit Red Wings (6, 3–3) Jack Adams 4–0 Boston Bruins (6, 3–3) Art Ross Joe Carveth (12:09, first)
1944 Montreal Canadiens (8, 5–2) Dick Irvin 4–0 Chicago Black Hawks (4, 2–2) Paul Thompson Toe Blake (9:12, OT)
1945 Toronto Maple Leafs (11, 5–6) Hap Day 4–3 Detroit Red Wings (7, 3–4) Jack Adams Babe Pratt (12:14, third)
1946 Montreal Canadiens (9, 6–2) Dick Irvin 4–1 Boston Bruins (7, 3–4) Dit Clapper Toe Blake (11:06, third)
1947 Toronto Maple Leafs (12, 6–6) Hap Day 4–2 Montreal Canadiens (10, 6–3) Dick Irvin Ted Kennedy (14:39, third)
1948 Toronto Maple Leafs (13, 7–6) 4–0 Detroit Red Wings (8, 3–5) Tommy Ivan Harry Watson (11:13, first)
1949 Toronto Maple Leafs (14, 8–6) 4–0 Detroit Red Wings (9, 3–6) Cal Gardner (19:45, second)
1950 Detroit Red Wings (10, 4–6) Tommy Ivan 4–3 New York Rangers (7, 3–4) Lynn Patrick Pete Babando (8:31, second OT)
1951 Toronto Maple Leafs (15, 9–6) Joe Primeau 4–1 Montreal Canadiens (11, 6–4) Dick Irvin Bill Barilko (2:53, OT)
1952 Detroit Red Wings (11, 5–6) Tommy Ivan 4–0 Montreal Canadiens (12, 6–5) Metro Prystai (6:50, first)
1953 Montreal Canadiens (13, 7–5) Dick Irvin 4–1 Boston Bruins (8, 3–5) Lynn Patrick Elmer Lach (1:22, OT)
1954 Detroit Red Wings (12, 6–6) Tommy Ivan 4–3 Montreal Canadiens (14, 7–6) Dick Irvin Tony Leswick (4:20, OT)
1955 Detroit Red Wings (13, 7–6) Jimmy Skinner 4–3 Montreal Canadiens (15, 7–7) Gordie Howe (19:49, second)
1956 Montreal Canadiens (16, 8–7) Toe Blake 4–1 Detroit Red Wings (14, 7–7) Jimmy Skinner Maurice Richard (15:08, second)
1957 Montreal Canadiens (17, 9–7) 4–1 Boston Bruins (9, 3–6) Milt Schmidt Dickie Moore (0:14, second)
1958 Montreal Canadiens (18, 10–7) 4–2 Boston Bruins (10, 3–7) Bernie Geoffrion (19:26, second)
1959 Montreal Canadiens (19, 11–7) 4–1 Toronto Maple Leafs (16, 9–7) Punch Imlach Marcel Bonin (9:55, second)
1960 Montreal Canadiens (20, 12–7) 4–0 Toronto Maple Leafs (17, 9–8) Jean Beliveau (8:16, first)
1961 Chicago Black Hawks (5, 3–2) Rudy Pilous 4–2 Detroit Red Wings (15, 7–8) Sid Abel Ab McDonald (18:49, second)
1962 Toronto Maple Leafs (18, 10–8) Punch Imlach 4–2 Chicago Black Hawks (6, 3–3) Rudy Pilous Dick Duff (14:14, third)
1963 Toronto Maple Leafs (19, 11–8) 4–1 Detroit Red Wings (16, 7–9) Sid Abel Eddie Shack (13:28, third)
1964 Toronto Maple Leafs (20, 12–8) 4–3 Detroit Red Wings (17, 7–10) Andy Bathgate (3:04, first)
1965 Montreal Canadiens (21, 13–7) Toe Blake 4–3 Chicago Black Hawks (7, 3–4) Billy Reay Jean Beliveau (0:14, first)
1966 Montreal Canadiens (22, 14–7) 4–2 Detroit Red Wings (18, 7–11) Sid Abel Henri Richard (2:20, OT)
1967 Toronto Maple Leafs (21, 13–8) Punch Imlach 4–2 Montreal Canadiens (23, 14–8) Toe Blake Jim Pappin (19:24, second)
1968 Montreal Canadiens (E) (24, 15–8) Toe Blake 4–0 St. Louis Blues (W) (1, 0–1) Scotty Bowman J. C. Tremblay (11:40, third)
1969 Montreal Canadiens (E) (25, 16–8) Claude Ruel 4–0 St. Louis Blues (W) (2, 0–2) John Ferguson (3:02, third)
1970 Boston Bruins (E) (11, 4–7) Harry Sinden 4–0 St. Louis Blues (W) (3, 0–3) Bobby Orr (0:40, OT)
1971 Montreal Canadiens (E) (26, 17–8) Al MacNeil 4–3 Chicago Black Hawks (W) (8, 3–5) Billy Reay Henri Richard (2:34, third)
1972 Boston Bruins (E) (12, 5–7) Tom Johnson 4–2 New York Rangers (E) (8, 3–5) Emile Francis Bobby Orr (11:18, first)
1973 Montreal Canadiens (E) (27, 18–8) Scotty Bowman 4–2 Chicago Black Hawks (W) (9, 3–6) Billy Reay Yvan Cournoyer (8:13, third)
1974 Philadelphia Flyers (W) (1, 1–0) Fred Shero 4–2 Boston Bruins (E) (13, 5–8) Bep Guidolin Rick MacLeish (14:48, first)
1975 Philadelphia Flyers (CC) (2, 2–0) 4–2 Buffalo Sabres (PW) (1, 0–1) Floyd Smith Bob Kelly (0:11, third)
1976 Montreal Canadiens (PW) (28, 19–8) Scotty Bowman 4–0 Philadelphia Flyers (CC) (3, 2–1) Fred Shero Guy Lafleur (14:18, third)
1977 Montreal Canadiens (PW) (29, 20–8) 4–0 Boston Bruins (PW) (14, 5–9) Don Cherry Jacques Lemaire (4:32, OT)
1978 Montreal Canadiens (PW) (30, 21–8) 4–2 Boston Bruins (PW) (15, 5–10) Mario Tremblay (9:20, first)
1979 Montreal Canadiens (PW) (31, 22–8) 4–1 New York Rangers (CC) (9, 3–6) Fred Shero Jacques Lemaire (1:02, second)
1980 New York Islanders (CC) (1, 1–0) Al Arbour 4–2 Philadelphia Flyers (CC) (4, 2–2) Pat Quinn Bob Nystrom (7:11, OT)
1981 New York Islanders (CC) (2, 2–0) 4–1 Minnesota North Stars (PW) (1, 0–1) Glen Sonmor Wayne Merrick (5:37, first)
1982 New York Islanders (PW) (3, 3–0) 4–0 Vancouver Canucks (CC) (1, 0–1) Roger Neilson Mike Bossy (5:00, second)
1983 New York Islanders (PW) (4, 4–0) 4–0 Edmonton Oilers (CC) (1, 0–1) Glen Sather Mike Bossy (12:39, first)
1984 Edmonton Oilers (CC) (2, 1–1) Glen Sather 4–1 New York Islanders (PW) (5, 4–1) Al Arbour Ken Linseman (0:38, second)
1985 Edmonton Oilers (CC) (3, 2–1) 4–1 Philadelphia Flyers (PW) (5, 2–3) Mike Keenan Paul Coffey (17:57, first)
1986 Montreal Canadiens (PW) (32, 23–8) Jean Perron 4–1 Calgary Flames (CC) (1, 0–1) Bob Johnson Bobby Smith (10:30, third)
1987 Edmonton Oilers (CC) (4, 3–1) Glen Sather 4–3 Philadelphia Flyers (PW) (6, 2–4) Mike Keenan Jari Kurri (14:59, second)
1988 Edmonton Oilers (CC) (5, 4–1) 4–0 Boston Bruins (PW) (16, 5–11) Terry O'Reilly Wayne Gretzky (9:44, second)
1989 Calgary Flames (CC) (2, 1–1) Terry Crisp 4–2 Montreal Canadiens (PW) (33, 23–9) Pat Burns Doug Gilmour (11:02, third)
1990 Edmonton Oilers (CC) (6, 5–1) John Muckler 4–1 Boston Bruins (PW) (17, 5–12) Mike Milbury Craig Simpson (9:31, second)
1991 Pittsburgh Penguins (PW) (1, 1–0) Bob Johnson 4–2 Minnesota North Stars (CC) (2, 0–2) Bob Gainey Ulf Samuelsson (2:00, first)
1992 Pittsburgh Penguins (PW) (2, 2–0) Scotty Bowman 4–0 Chicago Blackhawks (CC) (10, 3–7) Mike Keenan Ron Francis (7:59, third)
1993 Montreal Canadiens (PW) (34, 24–9) Jacques Demers 4–1 Los Angeles Kings (CC) (1, 0–1) Barry Melrose Kirk Muller (3:51, second)
1994 New York Rangers (EC) (10, 4–6) Mike Keenan 4–3 Vancouver Canucks (WC) (2, 0–2) Pat Quinn Mark Messier (13:29, second)
1995 New Jersey Devils (EC) (1, 1–0) Jacques Lemaire 4–0 Detroit Red Wings (WC) (19, 7–12) Scotty Bowman Neal Broten (7:56, second)
1996 Colorado Avalanche (WC) (1, 1–0) Marc Crawford 4–0 Florida Panthers (EC) (1, 0–1) Doug MacLean Uwe Krupp (4:31, third OT)
1997 Detroit Red Wings (WC) (20, 8–12) Scotty Bowman 4–0 Philadelphia Flyers (EC) (7, 2–5) Terry Murray Darren McCarty (13:02, second)
1998 Detroit Red Wings (WC) (21, 9–12) 4–0 Washington Capitals (EC) (1, 0–1) Ron Wilson Martin Lapointe (2:26, second)
1999 Dallas Stars (WC) (3, 1–2) Ken Hitchcock 4–2 Buffalo Sabres (EC) (2, 0–2) Lindy Ruff Brett Hull (14:51, third OT)
2000 New Jersey Devils (EC) (2, 2–0) Larry Robinson (interim) 4–2 Dallas Stars (WC) (4, 1–3) Ken Hitchcock Jason Arnott (8:20, second OT)
2001 Colorado Avalanche (WC) (2, 2–0) Bob Hartley 4–3 New Jersey Devils (EC) (3, 2–1) Larry Robinson Alex Tanguay (4:57, second)
2002 Detroit Red Wings (WC) (22, 10–12) Scotty Bowman 4–1 Carolina Hurricanes (EC) (1, 0–1) Paul Maurice Brendan Shanahan (14:04, second)
2003 New Jersey Devils (EC) (4, 3–1) Pat Burns 4–3 Mighty Ducks of Anaheim (WC) (1, 0–1) Mike Babcock Michael Rupp (2:22, second)
2004 Tampa Bay Lightning (EC) (1, 1–0) John Tortorella 4–3 Calgary Flames (WC) (3, 1–2) Darryl Sutter Ruslan Fedotenko (14:38, second)
2005 Season cancelled due to the 2004–05 NHL lockout
2006 Carolina Hurricanes (EC) (2, 1–1) Peter Laviolette 4–3 Edmonton Oilers (WC) (7, 5–2) Craig MacTavish Frantisek Kaberle (4:18, second)
2007 Anaheim Ducks (WC) (2, 1–1) Randy Carlyle 4–1 Ottawa Senators (EC) (1, 0–1) Bryan Murray Travis Moen (15:44, second)
2008 Detroit Red Wings (WC) (23, 11–12) Mike Babcock 4–2 Pittsburgh Penguins (EC) (3, 2–1) Michel Therrien Henrik Zetterberg (7:36, third)
2009 Pittsburgh Penguins (EC) (4, 3–1) Dan Bylsma 4–3 Detroit Red Wings (WC) (24, 11–13) Mike Babcock Maxime Talbot (10:07, second)
2010 Chicago Blackhawks (WC) (11, 4–7) Joel Quenneville 4–2 Philadelphia Flyers (EC) (8, 2–6) Peter Laviolette Patrick Kane (4:06, OT)
2011 Boston Bruins (EC) (18, 6–12) Claude Julien 4–3 Vancouver Canucks (WC) (3, 0–3) Alain Vigneault Patrice Bergeron (14:37, first)
2012 Los Angeles Kings (WC) (2, 1–1) Darryl Sutter 4–2 New Jersey Devils (EC) (5, 3–2) Peter DeBoer Jeff Carter (12:45, first)
2013 Chicago Blackhawks (WC) (12, 5–7) Joel Quenneville 4–2 Boston Bruins (EC) (19, 6–13) Claude Julien Dave Bolland (19:01, third)
2014 Los Angeles Kings (WC) (3, 2–1) Darryl Sutter 4–1 New York Rangers (EC) (11, 4–7) Alain Vigneault Alec Martinez (14:43, second OT)
2015 Chicago Blackhawks (WC) (13, 6–7) Joel Quenneville 4–2 Tampa Bay Lightning (EC) (2, 1–1) Jon Cooper Duncan Keith (17:13, second)
2016 Pittsburgh Penguins (EC) (5, 4–1) Mike Sullivan 4–2 San Jose Sharks (WC) (1, 0–1) Peter DeBoer Kris Letang (7:46, second)
2017 Pittsburgh Penguins (EC) (6, 5–1) 4–2 Nashville Predators (WC) (1, 0–1) Peter Laviolette Patric Hornqvist (18:25, third)
2018 Washington Capitals (EC) (2, 1–1) Barry Trotz 4–1 Vegas Golden Knights (WC) (1, 0–1) Gerard Gallant Lars Eller (12:23, third)
2019 St. Louis Blues (WC) (4, 1–3) Craig Berube (interim) 4–3 Boston Bruins (EC) (20, 6–14) Bruce Cassidy Alex Pietrangelo (19:52, first)
2020 Tampa Bay Lightning (EC) (3, 2–1) Jon Cooper 4–2 Dallas Stars (WC) (5, 1–4) Rick Bowness (interim) Brayden Point (12:23, first)

Challenge Cup era (1893–1914) Edit

Legend: SC = successful Stanley Cup challenge or defense of championship (win) UC = unsuccessful Stanley Cup challenge or defense of championship (loss) Years in bold denote a Stanley Cup win.

Team SC UC Total Win % Appearances
Ottawa HC 17 2 19 .895 1894, 1903 (2), 1904 (4), 1905 (3), 1906 (2), 1906, 1909, 1910 (2), 1911 (3)
Montreal Wanderers 10 2 12 .833 1904, 1906 (2), 1907, 1907, 1908 (5), 1910 (2)
Winnipeg Victorias 6 5 11 .545 1896 (2), 1896, 1899, 1900, 1901 (2), 1902 (2), 1902, 1903
Montreal Victorias 6 2 8 .750 1895, 1896, 1896, 1897 (2), 1898, 1899, 1903
Montreal Shamrocks 5 1 6 .833 1899 (2), 1900 (3), 1901
Montreal HC 5 0 5 1.000 1893, 1894, 1895, 1902, 1903
Quebec Bulldogs 4 0 4 1.000 1912 (2), 1913 (2)
Rat Portage/Kenora Thistles 2 3 5 .400 1903, 1905, 1907 (2), 1907
Toronto Blueshirts 2 0 2 1.000 1914 (2)
Queen's University 0 3 3 .000 1895, 1899, 1906
Brandon Wheat City 0 2 2 .000 1904, 1907
Edmonton HC 0 2 2 .000 1908, 1910
Galt HC 0 2 2 .000 1910, 1911
Winnipeg Maple Leafs 0 2 2 .000 1901, 1908

Stanley Cup Finals era (since 1915) Edit

Active teams Edit

In the sortable table below, teams are ordered first by number of appearances, then by number of wins, and finally by alphabetical order. In the "Years of appearance" column, bold years indicate winning Stanley Cup Finals appearances. Unless marked otherwise, teams played in the NHL exclusively at the time they competed for the Stanley Cup.

Apps Team Wins Losses Win % Season(s)
34 [a] Montreal Canadiens 24 9 [a] .727 1916, 1917, 1919 [a] , 1924, 1925, 1930, 1931, 1944, 1946, 1947, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1965, 1966, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1971, 1973, 1976, 1977, 1978, 1979, 1986, 1989, 1993
24 Detroit Red Wings 11 13 .458 1934, 1936, 1937, 1941, 1942, 1943, 1945, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1952, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1961, 1963, 1964, 1966, 1995, 1997, 1998, 2002, 2008, 2009
21 Toronto Maple Leafs [b] 13 8 .619 1918, 1922, 1932, 1933, 1935, 1936, 1938, 1939, 1940, 1942, 1945, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1951, 1959, 1960, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1967
20 Boston Bruins 6 14 .300 1927, 1929, 1930, 1939, 1941, 1943, 1946, 1953, 1957, 1958, 1970, 1972, 1974, 1977, 1978, 1988, 1990, 2011, 2013, 2019
13 Chicago Blackhawks [c] 6 7 .462 1931, 1934, 1938, 1944, 1961, 1962, 1965, 1971, 1973, 1992, 2010, 2013, 2015
11 New York Rangers 4 7 .364 1928, 1929, 1932, 1933, 1937, 1940, 1950, 1972, 1979, 1994, 2014
8 Philadelphia Flyers 2 6 .250 1974, 1975, 1976, 1980, 1985, 1987, 1997, 2010
7 Edmonton Oilers 5 2 .714 1983, 1984, 1985, 1987, 1988, 1990, 2006
6 Pittsburgh Penguins 5 1 .833 1991, 1992, 2008, 2009, 2016, 2017
5 New York Islanders 4 1 .800 1980, 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984
5 New Jersey Devils 3 2 .600 1995, 2000, 2001, 2003, 2012
5 Dallas Stars [d] 1 4 .200 1981, 1991, 1999, 2000, 2020
4 St. Louis Blues 1 3 .250 1968, 1969, 1970, 2019
3 Los Angeles Kings 2 1 .667 1993, 2012, 2014
3 Tampa Bay Lightning 2 1 .667 2004, 2015, 2020
3 Calgary Flames 1 2 .333 1986, 1989, 2004
3 Vancouver Canucks 0 3 .000 1982, 1994, 2011
2 Colorado Avalanche 2 0 1.000 1996, 2001
2 Anaheim Ducks [e] 1 1 .500 2003, 2007
2 Carolina Hurricanes 1 1 .500 2002, 2006
2 Washington Capitals 1 1 .500 1998, 2018
2 Buffalo Sabres 0 2 .000 1975, 1999
1 Florida Panthers 0 1 .000 1996
1 Nashville Predators 0 1 .000 2017
1 Ottawa Senators [f] 0 1 .000 2007
1 San Jose Sharks 0 1 .000 2016
1 Vegas Golden Knights 0 1 .000 2018

Four active teams have yet to make a Stanley Cup Finals appearance. Two of these teams have remained in the same location since their inceptions:

The other two teams have relocated and have not made the Finals in either location:

Five relocated teams that have won the Stanley Cup in their current locations and never in their former locations:

    (16 seasons, 9 playoffs, 2 division titles) – won 2 Stanley Cups as Colorado Avalanche (2 seasons, never made playoff contention)/Colorado Rockies (6 seasons, 1 playoff) – won 3 Stanley Cups as New Jersey Devils (9 seasons, 2 playoffs)/Cleveland Barons (2 seasons, never made playoff contention) – merged with Minnesota North Stars who lost twice in the Finals then won the Stanley Cup once as Dallas Stars (8 seasons, 6 playoffs) – won Stanley Cup once as Calgary Flames (18 seasons, 8 playoffs, 1 division title) – won Stanley Cup once as Carolina Hurricanes

Defunct teams Edit

Listed after the team name is the name of the affiliated league(s) when the team competed for the Stanley Cup. A bold year denotes a Stanley Cup win.


Award-Winning American IPA Recipes

America’s favorite style of craft beer of late is pretty easy to name: IPA. Those three letters can sell almost anything, market analysis tells us year after year. Over time, the IPA category has splintered further into a dozen sub-styles: Every color, every strength, every possible combination of yeast strains. Beyond hoppy, drinkers and brewers can seem to change their mind about what they want the style to be year after year. While this riffing on a common theme is far from new in beer, it can seem to affect IPAs far more than other styles. Maybe that’s because India Pale Ale has always had a hazy identity, full of twists and turns right from the start.

In the Beginning

The common story that IPA was invented to survive the long ocean voyage is actually a bit of a distortion of the truth hoppy pale ales existed before the style was defined, and independent of the India route. Little realized, too, is that historic English IPAs resembled American hop-bombs closer than their contemporary English cousins. Brewed with only the lightest malt on the market to be as pale and dry as possible, they were nonetheless intensely hopped, using up to three or four ounces per gallon (22–30 g/L). But the powerful forces of taste and taxes changed much over time, and the English IPA of the mid-1900s emerged as a quite different beer from those of the mid-1800s. Half a century ago, the IPAs of England barely resembled their historic predecessors.

American brewers, of course, took a run at it from there. Early on in the US there was the legendary Ballantine IPA, a standard bearer of American IPA for decades, but which mutated and changed many times itself over the years, until, by the 1970s, changes in ownership had warped Ballantine into a ghost of the beer it’d once been. It would take innovative brewers on the West Coast of the United States to rekindle the public’s taste for hoppy beers. Soon, of course, this thirst would spread across the country.

In IPA: Brewing Techniques, Recipes and the Evolution of India Pale Ale, author (and former Stone Brewing Co. Brewmaster) Mitch Steele describes the conception of the beer that would form the blueprint for hoppy American ales for years to come: Anchor Liberty Ale. Hopped entirely with Cascade, it was a massively bitter beer for its time, at 40 plus IBUs. Steele calls it, “The first American IPA in every sense since Ballantine.” Liberty Ale would inspire many more beers, and Cascade would from then on practically define an era of American craft beer. Sierra Nevada based their game-changing pale ale around Liberty. In the east, Boston’s Harpoon IPA soon emerged as one of the first year-round IPAs anywhere in the country — and it too showcased America’s favorite new hop. In Oregon, the trend-setting, super-bitter-for-its-time Bombay Bomber IPA from Steelhead Brewing Co. in Portland furthered the trend of focusing on new, citrusy American hops like Chinook.

But as more and more (and more) breweries opened, these American commonalities were shuffled off into a new era of regionalism. If you’re an IPA fan, you’re almost certainly familiar with the distinction of East Coast IPA and West Coast IPA. Or the perceived distinction, anyway — it stands to reason that the lines would begin to blur over time, that not every last brewery would stick to its geographical inheritance. But let’s step back twenty or so years ago, to when American IPA was in a different phase, when regionalism was much more of a thing.

As “schools of thought,” the geographical categorization of East Coast IPA and West Coast IPA was never meant to encapsulate every single brewery on either coast, but rather the prevailing trends and techniques that many brewers in the various regions favored. The East Coast took its cues from contemporary brewing trends in England, with ample crystal malt providing contrast to hop bitterness. West Coast brewers dug in on paler concoctions with unashamed bitterness, in some ways closer to English IPAs of an earlier era. These days, the same rules don’t necessarily apply.

“Brewers are fairly transient,” said John Trogner, Co-Founder and Brewmaster at Tröegs Brewing Co. in Hershey, Pennsylvania, who got his start brewing in Colorado before moving back to central Pennsylvania to open Tröegs with his brother. “They’re learning in one place and picking up and moving to another. Just like America, it’s the melting pot. We’ve traveled all over and soaked up what we’ve liked and molded each of our beers to have their own tastes and aromas.”

Mitch Steele agrees. “It’s blurring across the country,” Steele said of the American IPA style. “Some of the best ‘West Coast’ IPAs are being brewed by Fat Heads, just outside of Cleveland, Ohio, and Wicked Weed in Asheville, North Carolina, among many others. Brewers tend to share so much information, regional differences are going away.”

The New Approach

As trends change, balance is often the big riddle for American IPA brewers and drinkers alike. It seems to mean something different to everyone, and no one can even seem to agree whether an IPA needs to be balanced — again, depending on what you even mean by the term. But for years, the distinction in terms of coastal IPAs at least had some consensus: When brewing in the East, use more caramel malt when brewing for Californians, just bitter that sucker to oblivion, and don’t forget the gypsum.

“Balance is so subjective,” Steele said. “I think every beer needs to have some malt — it can’t be a hop tea and be successful. That said, I do think some brewers are too nervous about going for the gusto with their hop additions. Using a skillful blend of hops in very large quantities can result in a wonderful balance too.”

Across all the brewers I’ve talked to, both for this article and in general conversation recently, I was shocked how unanimous this impression was. All IPA brewers seem to be zeroing in on a shift in the palate of IPA drinkers, who seem to have a thirst for drier, aromatic, and more drinkable IPAs.

“I think many brewers across the country right now are focusing their IPA recipes to have huge hop aroma and flavor, and very little malt sweetness,” said Steele.

“I think brewers across the US are continuing to move in a common direction in regard to the overall objectives in IPA brewing: A pale ale that is delicate on the palate and oozing with hop flavor and aroma,” said Dan Suarez, former Assistant Brewer for Hill Farmstead Brewery in Greensboro Bend, Vermont. Dan is currently working to open Suarez Family Brewery in Germantown, New York.

For Suarez, balance is relatively straightforward. “I think balance simply refers to an IPA that is pleasant to drink. This is what beer drinkers and brewers want nowadays. The IBU arms race is over, and people just want a drinkable beer.”

While plenty of hopheads have developed a definite love of bitterness, there’s a large portion of the market that will likely never share that same taste. Jean Broillet IV, Brewmaster at Tired Hands in Ardmore, Pennsylvania, points out that humans are wired to avoid bitterness, even if it becomes an acquired taste for some. Brewers across the country have now caught on to the fact that dense, vibrant hop flavors can be packed into a beer that will appeal to hopheads and bitterness-fearers alike. This, in fact, may be the new front of IPA education: Separating “hoppiness” and “bitterness” in the lexicon of the average beer drinker’s mind.

Brewing American IPA

While hops may be the sexiest ingredient of your American IPA, in some ways, they’re also the easiest. Throw some Citra® and Amarillo® in for late additions and you probably won’t go wrong. Whirlpool hopping might be the standout trend in this new school of thought regarding IPAs. Broillet, Trogner, and others recommend shifting the majority of the hop bill to the whirlpool stage (for many homebrewers, this takes the form of a long “hop stand” after finishing your boil) and to the dry hop. But all the brewers I talked to agreed: Don’t neglect the other components, because they can actually be the toughest to nail.

The most important ingredient of all, however, when crafting the perfect IPA is water.

“Insanely hoppy IPAs that you want to be perfectly dry but not bitter . . . there’s a big difference even if you have a slight salt change,” said Trogner.

Trogner describes the “two general ways” of tweaking a beer’s character through water, beyond basic utilitarian adjustments like analyzing your water hardness and carefully dialing in mash pH (for dry and bright IPAs, target a mash pH on the low end, around 5.3). To round out the mouthfeel of a beer, Trogner says, add calcium chloride (CaCl2). To sharpen it, gypsum (calcium sulfate) will accentuate the bitterness and perception of dryness in the beer, and remains a classic element in the West Coast IPA flavor profile.

As for yeast, Broillet, like many of the brewers I talked to, relies on an English ale strain. “A nice soft ester profile jibes really well with our hop selection,” he said. While English strains are generally less attenuative than American strains like Chico, Broillet engineers his IPAs to finish extremely dry by manipulating other variables, like mash temperature and grain bill.

Homebrewing American IPA

Of course, the trends in commercial American IPA have resonated with homebrewers. For example, Philadelphia-area homebrewer Ed Coffey has devoted a lot of thought (and a lot of test batches) parsing the secrets behind Broillet’s beers, along with occasional tips gleaned from the brewer himself. It’s paid off: Coffey won the Philly Homebrew Cup with an IPA inspired by Broillet’s hoppy creations, and for his prize, went on to brew his Riverwards IPA recipe at 2nd Story Brewing in downtown Philadelphia. (Check out Coffey’s recipe, along with four other award-winning IPA homebrew recipes below). Through his repeated experiments and research, Coffey sees these new-wave IPAs as simple beers that come together through expert technique and process management.

“From hopping techniques to water treatment and expressive yeast strains, every component is expertly calculated and plays an important role,” Coffey said of the modern American IPA. “Drinkability is what sets it apart, since most of these new IPAs are not overly bitter while being exceedingly hoppy, and more complex and impressive than their forefathers.”

Buffalo, New York’s Brad Robbins, first-place winner in the IPA category at the 2014 Amber Waves of Grain for his Simtra Mosalaxy IPA (recipe below) goes for a similar approach.

“My goal with this IPA, and most that I brew, was to emphasize hop flavor and aroma over bitterness. Even though it clocks in at 81 IBU, the fuller body keeps the bitterness in check and allows the intense aromas and flavors of American/Down Under hops to shine, while the first wort hopping lends a deceptively smooth bitterness and long-lasting flavor. In addition to a heavy hop load at flameout, I utilized a hopstand to extract further flavor and aroma without adding bitterness. There is a range of temperatures that can be used for hop stands, but I chose the relatively low temperature of 150 °F (66 °C) paired with a longer hold of 50 minutes to achieve maximum flavor/aroma and minimum bitterness. To achieve this, you can simply chill your wort immediately after flame out, stopping when it reaches your desired temperature and allowing it to rest there for 20 minutes to an hour, depending on your patience and desired level of flavor/aroma extraction.”

Matt Klausner, an Aurora, Illinois homebrewer who has won many awards for his Klaus Brau’s Kitchen Sink IPA (recipe below) emphasizes keeping the beer as “clean” as possible. He swears by using a secondary fermenter for his IPAs.

“There is a lot of discussion on whether or not to use a secondary fermenter,” said Klausner. “I believe they are a useful tool in making better beer. Especially with a heavily-hopped IPA, the beer should be as clean as possible. When you’re ready to rack off the hops, cold crashing will help drop the hops to the bottom so you can hold a siphon above the hops to transfer. With enough practice you won’t suck up any hop material.”

Find Your Perspective

Whether the beer is commercial or homebrew, West Coast, East Coast, or whatever brewers will decide to call this new approach to IPA, Trogner feels that there will always be one definitive factor that can be relied upon to categorize an IPA.

“The number one thing is the brewer’s perspective,” Trogner says. “Whoever is creating that recipe, his or her point of view obviously affects the whole freaking thing. If you agree with their brewing philosophy you’re going to dig it, if you don’t . . . they can use the best ingredients, but it’s probably not going to match up to your taste buds.”

Riverwards IPA

(5 gallons/19 L, all-grain)
OG = 1.060 FG = 1.012
IBU = 42 SRM = 4 ABV = 6.4%
by Ed Coffey • Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Winner, Philly Homebrew Cup

Ingredients
11 lbs. (5 kg) 2-row pale malt
1.4 lbs. (0.64 kg) white wheat malt
1.4 lbs. (0.64 kg) flaked oats
4.3 AAU CTZ (Columbus/Tomahawk®/Zeus) hops (first wort hop) (0.25 oz./7 g at 17% alpha acid)
11.1 AAU Amarillo® hops (5 min.) (1.25 oz./35 g at 8.9% alpha acid)
18.1 AAU Citra® hops (5 min.) (1.25 oz./35 g at 14.5% alpha acid)
1.25 oz. (35 g) Amarillo® hops (hop stand)
1.25 oz. (35 g) Citra® hops (hop stand)
2.5 oz. (71 g) Amarillo® hops (dry hop)
2.5 oz. (71 g) Citra® hops (dry hop)
1 oz. (28 g) Simcoe® hops (dry hop)
½ tsp. yeast nutrient (15 min.)
1 tsp. Irish moss (15 min.)
The Yeast Bay (Vermont Ale) or GigaYeast GY054 (Vermont IPA) or East Coast Yeast ECY29 (North East Ale) yeast
2⁄3 cup corn sugar (if priming)

Step by Step
Mill the grains and dough-in with 17.25 quarts (16.3 L) of strike water, for a mash ratio of about 1.25 quarts per pound of grain (2.6 L/kg). Target a mash temperature of 150 °F (66 °C) and hold for 60 minutes. Sparge with 170 °F (77 °C) water. While the runnings are being collected, add your first wort hop addition. Collect approximately 7 gallons (26.4 L) of wort runoff and bring to a boil. The goal is to get 5.5 gallons (21 L) into the fermenter. Add the Irish moss with 15 minutes left in the boil. Add the first charge of Amarillo® and Citra® hops with 5 minutes left in the boil.

After the 60-minute boil, chill the entire wort down to 185 °F (85 °C) and add the whirlpool/hop stand addition of hops and let the wort rest for 45 minutes with the lid on. Once the whirlpool/hop stand is complete, chill your wort to yeast pitching temperature.

Pitch your yeast as a 1.5-L yeast starter and ferment at 64–70 °F (18–21 °C). Fermentation should take 10–14 days. Following fermentation, dry hop for five days before bottling or transferring to keg. Prime to 2.3 volumes of CO2.

Riverwards IPA

(5 gallons/19 L, extract only)
OG = 1.060 FG = 1.012
IBU = 42 SRM = 4 ABV = 6.4%

Ingredients
5.5 lbs. (2.5 kg) golden light dried malt extract
1 lb. (0.45 kg) wheat dried malt extract
1 lb. (0.45 kg) corn sugar (dextrose)
4.3 AAU CTZ (Columbus/Tomahawk®/Zeus) hops (first wort hop) (0.25 oz./7 g at 17% alpha acid)
11.1 AAU Amarillo® hops (5 min.) (1.25 oz./35 g at 8.9% alpha acid)
18.1 AAU Citra® hops (5 min.) (1.25 oz./35 g at 14.5% alpha acid)
1.25 oz. (35 g) Amarillo® hops (hop stand)
1.25 oz. (35 g) Citra® hops (hop stand)
2.5 oz. (71 g) Amarillo® hops (dry hop)
2.5 oz. (71 g) Citra® hops (dry hop)
1 oz. (28 g) Simcoe® hops (dry hop)
½ tsp. yeast nutrient (15 min.)
1 tsp. Irish moss (15 min.)
The Yeast Bay (Vermont Ale) or GigaYeast GY054 (Vermont IPA) or East Coast Yeast ECY29 (North East Ale) yeast
2⁄3 cup corn sugar (if priming)

Step by Step
Add the water to reach a total of 3 gallons (11.3 L), then bring to a boil. Turn off the heat, add the malt extract and corn sugar, and stir until completely dissolved. Return to heat and add first hop addition. Add the Irish moss with 15 minutes left in the boil. Add the first charge of Amarillo® and Citra® hops with 5 minutes left in the boil. Boil for a total of 60 minutes, then top off with cold, filtered water until the temperature of the wort drops to 185 °F (85 °C). Add whirlpool/hop stand additions and let rest for 45 minutes with the lid on. Once the whirlpool/hop stand is complete, top off with cold, filtered water to reach a total volume of 5.5 gallons (21 L), then continue to chill wort to yeast pitching temperatures.

Pitch the yeast as a 1.5-L yeast starter and ferment at 64-70 °F (18- 21 °C). Fermentation should take 10-14 days. Following fermentation, dry hop for 5 days before bottling or transferring to keg. Prime to 2.3 volumes of CO2.

Peachtree IPA

(5 gallons/19 L, all-grain)
OG = 1.063 FG = 1.012
IBU = 66 SRM = 9 ABV = 6.7%
by Josh Weikert • Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Winner 1st Place IPA at War of the Worts

Ingredients
11.75 lbs. (5.3 kg) US 2-row pale malt
1.4 lbs. (0.64 kg) Munich malt (9 °L)
13 oz. (0.36 kg) crystal malt (20 °L)
9 oz. (0.25 kg) crystal malt (40 °L)
16.3 AAU Nugget hops (60 min.) (1.25 oz./35 g at 13% alpha acid)
16.3 AAU Simcoe® hops (5 min.) (1.25 oz./35 g at 13% alpha acid)
1.25 oz. (35 g) Amarillo® hops (0 min.)
1.25 oz. (35 g) Citra® hops (dry hop)
½ tsp. yeast nutrient (15 min.)
Wyeast 1056 (American Ale) or White Labs WLP001 (California Ale) or Fermentis US-05 yeast
2⁄3 cup corn sugar (if priming)

Step by Step
This is a single infusion mash. Heat 4.5 gallons (17 L) of strike water for a mash ratio of about 1.25 quarts per pound of grain (2.6 L/kg). Target a mash temperature of 154 °F (68 °C) and hold for 60 minutes. Batch sparge with enough water to collect approximately 7 gallons (26.4 L) of wort runoff and bring to a boil. The goal is to get 5.5 gallons (21 L) of wort into the fermenter.

Boil the wort for 60 minutes adding the Nugget hops at the beginning, the yeast nutrients with 15 minutes left in the boil, and the Simcoe® hop addition with five minutes remaining in the boil. After turning off the heat, add the Amarillo® hops, then chill the wort to 68 °F (20 °C) and pitch the yeast, preferably as a 1.5-L yeast starter if pitching liquid yeast. Hold at this temperature for the duration of primary fermentation. Fermentation should take 10–14 days. Following fermentation, dry hop with Citra® hops for five days before bottling or transferring to keg. Prime to 2.4 volumes of CO2.

Peachtree IPA

(5 gallons/19 L, extract with grains)
OG = 1.063 FG = 1.012
IBU = 66 SRM = 9 ABV = 6.7%

Ingredients
4.75 lbs. (2.15 kg) extra light dried malt extract
3.3 lbs. (1.5 kg) Munich liquid malt extract
8 oz. (0.23 kg) crystal malt (20 °L)
8 oz. (0.23 kg) crystal malt (40 °L)
16.3 AAU Nugget hops (60 min.) (1.25 oz./35 g at 13% alpha acid)
16.3 AAU Simcoe® hops (5 min.) (1.25 oz./35 g at 13% alpha acid)
1.25 oz. (35 g) Amarillo® hops (0 min.)
1.25 oz. (35 g) Citra® hops (dry hop)
½ tsp. yeast nutrient (15 min.)
Wyeast 1056 (American Ale) or White Labs WLP001 (California Ale) or Fermentis US-05 yeast
2⁄3 cup corn sugar (if priming)

Step by Step
Steep the crushed grain in 2 gallons (7.6 L) of water as it warms until a temperature of about 170 °F (77 °C) is reached, or approximately 20 minutes. Remove the grains from the wort and rinse with 4 quarts (3.7 L) of hot water. Add the liquid to reach a total of 3 gallons (11.3 L) in the brew pot and bring the wort to a boil. Turn off the heat, add the liquid malt extract, and stir until completely dissolved. Return to heat and add the Nugget hops. With 15 minutes remaining in the boil, add the dried malt extract and yeast nutrients. Add the Simcoe® hop addition with five minutes remaining in the boil. After turning off the heat, add the Amarillo® hops and then rapidly chill the wort to room temperature. Transfer to a fermenter and top off to 5.5 gallons (21 L).

Pitch the yeast when the temperature of the wort is about 68 °F (20 °C). Preferably pitch the yeast as a 1.5-L starter if pitching liquid yeast. Hold the wort at this temperature for the duration of primary fermentation. Fermentation should take 10–14 days. Following fermentation, dry hop for 5 days before bottling or transferring to keg. Prime to 2.4 volumes of CO2.

Tips for success:
This recipe is designed to be simple and easy. The dry hop is up to the brewer’s preference. I originally used Amarillo® when first developing this recipe, but I have switched it up to Citra® to brighten the aroma. Whatever American aroma hops you prefer would be appropriate here.

Simtra Mosalaxy IPA

(5 gallons/19 L, all-grain)
OG = 1.067 FG = 1.016
IBU = 80+ SRM = 14 ABV = 7%
by Brad Robbins • Buffalo, New York Winner 1st Place IPA at Amber Waves of Grain

Ingredients
13.5 lbs. (6.1 kg) Muntons Maris Otter malt blend
8 oz. (0.22 kg) Fawcett dark crystal malt (120 °L)
8 oz. (0.22 kg) Muntons crystal malt (60 °L)
8 oz. (0.22 kg) Weyermann Caraamber® malt (28 °L)
13.8 AAU Citra® hops, leaf (first wort hop) (1 oz./28 g at 13.8% alpha acids)
14.1 AAU Simcoe® hops, leaf (first wort hop) (1 oz./28 g at 14.1% alpha acids)
12.4 AAU Mosaic™ hops, pellets (15 min.) (1 oz./28 g at 12.4% alpha acids)
13.8 AAU Citra® hops, leaf (10 min.) (1 oz./28 g at 13.8% alpha acids)
16 AAU Galaxy hops, pellets (5 min.) (1 oz./28 g at 16% alpha acids)
1 oz. (28 g) AU Topaz hops, pellets (hop stand)
1 oz. (28 g) Mosaic™ hops, pellets (hop stand)
1 oz. (28 g) Galaxy hops, pellets (hop stand)
1 oz. (28 g) Citra® hops, leaf (hop stand)
1 oz. (28 g) Simcoe® hops, leaf (hop stand)
1 oz. (28 g) Galaxy hops, pellets (dry hop)
1 oz. (28 g) Citra® hops, leaf(dry hop)
1 oz. (28 g) Simcoe® hops, leaf (dry hop)
1 oz. (28 g) Mosaic™ hops, pellets (dry hop)
Fermentis US-05 or White Labs WLP001 (California Ale) or Wyeast 1056 (American Ale) yeast
3⁄4 cup corn sugar (if priming)

Step by Step
Mash the grains with strike water to achieve 155 °F (68 °C). Rest for 60 minutes until conversion is complete. Sparge with enough water to collect 7.5 gallons (28.4 L) in the kettle. Add the first wort hop additions during the sparge. Boil for 90 minutes adding kettle hops at the times indicated. Chill the wort to 150 °F (66 °C), then add the hop stands. After 50 minutes chill to 68 °F (20 °C). Pitch the yeast, then aerate. Ferment at 68 °F (20 °C). Transfer the beer onto the dry hops in a secondary vessel. Dry hop for two weeks. Prime to 2.5 volumes of CO2.

Simtra Mosalaxy IPA

(5 gallons/19 L, extract with grains)
OG = 1.067 FG = 1.016
IBU = 80+ SRM = 15 ABV = 7%

Ingredients
9.5 lbs. (4.3 kg) Maris Otter liquid malt extract
8 oz. (0.22 kg) Fawcett dark crystal malt (120 °L)
8 oz. (0.22 kg) Muntons crystal malt (60 °L)
8 oz. (0.22 kg) Weyermann Caraamber® malt (28 °L)
13.8 AAU Citra® hops, leaf (first wort hop) (1 oz./28 g at 13.8% alpha acids)
14.1 AAU Simcoe® hops, leaf (first wort hop) (1 oz./28 g at 14.1% alpha acids)
12.4 AAU Mosaic™ hops, pellets (15 min.) (1 oz./28 g at 12.4% alpha acids)
13.8 AAU Citra® hops, leaf (10 min.) (1 oz./28 g at 13.8% alpha acids)
16 AAU Galaxy hops, pellets (5 min.)
(1 oz./28 g at 16% alpha acids)
1 oz. (28 g) AU Topaz hops, pellets (hop stand)
1 oz. (28 g) Mosaic™ hops, pellets (hop stand)
1 oz. (28 g) Galaxy hops, pellets (hop stand)
1 oz. (28 g) Citra® hops, leaf (hop stand)
1 oz. (28 g) Simcoe® hops, leaf (hop stand)
1 oz. (28 g) Galaxy hops, pellets (dry hop)
1 oz. (28 g) Citra® hops, leaf (dry hop)
1 oz. (28 g) Simcoe® hops, leaf (dry hop)
1 oz. (28 g) Mosaic™ hops, pellets (dry hop)
Fermentis US-05 or White Labs WLP001 (California Ale) or Wyeast 1056 (American Ale) yeast
3⁄4 cup corn sugar (if priming)

Step by Step
Place your crushed grains in a bag and soak in one gallon (4 L) 160 °F (71 °C) water for 20 minutes. Rinse the grains with 2 qts. (2 L) hot water. Add water until there is about 7.5 gallons (28.4 L) in the kettle. Bring to a boil, remove the kettle from heat and stir in the malt extract. Add the first wort hop additions and return the wort to heat. Follow the remainder of the all-grain recipe.

American IPA

(5 gallons/19 L, all-grain)
OG = 1.070 FG = 1.016
IBU = 100+ SRM = 8 ABV = 7.1%
by Chris Woolston • Beacon, New York
National Homebrew Competition Round 1 New York City Region First Place

Ingredients
13.5 lbs. (6.1 kg) 2-row pale malt
1.4 lbs. (0.64 kg) Carapils® malt
1.4 lbs. (0.64 kg) crystal malt (40 °L)
13 AAU Simcoe® hops (90 min.) (1 oz./28 g at 13% alpha acids)
6.5 AAU Simcoe® hops (30 min.) (0.5 oz./14 g at 13% alpha acids)
7.8 AAU CTZ (Columbus/Tomahawk®/Zeus) hops (30 min.) (0.5 oz./14 g at 15.5% alpha acids)
9.8 AAU Simcoe® hops (15 min.) (0.75 oz./21g at 13% alpha acids)
11.6 AAU CTZ (Columbus/Tomahawk®/Zeus) hops (15 min.) (0.75 oz./21 g at 15.5% alpha acids)
5.5 AAU Cascade hops (10 min.) (1 oz./28 g at 5.5% alpha acids)
0.5 oz. (14 g) Simcoe® hops (0 min.)
0.5 oz. (14 g) CTZ (Columbus/Tomahawk®/Zeus) hops (0 min.)
0.5 oz. (14 g) Amarillo® (dry hop)
0.5 oz. (14 g) Centennial (dry hop)
0.5 oz. (14 g) CTZ (Columbus/Tomahawk®/Zeus) hops (dry hop)
0.5 oz. (14 g) Simcoe® (dry hop)
Wyeast 1056 (American Ale) or White Labs WLP001 (California Ale) or Fermentis US-05
¾ cup corn sugar (if priming)

Step By Step
A day or two before brew day make a yeast starter if using a liquid strain. On brew day, dough-in with 20.4 quarts (19.3 L) of water, for a mash ratio of about 1.25 quarts per pound of grain. Target a mash temperature of 152 °F (67 °C) and hold for 60 minutes. Sparge with 170 °F (77 °C) water. Collect approximately 7 gallons (26.4 L) of wort runoff and bring to a boil, then add first hop addition. Boil for 90 minutes, adding hops at times indicated. At the end of the boil, add the final hop addition, then chill the wort to 64 °F (18 °C).

Pitch your yeast starter and ferment at 64–70 °F (18–21 °C). Following primary fermentation (about two weeks), dry hop for five days before bottling or transferring to keg. Prime to 2.3 volumes of CO2.

American IPA

(5 gallons/19 L, extract with grains)
OG = 1.070 FG = 1.016
IBU = 100+ SRM = 10 ABV = 7.1%

Ingredients
8 lbs (3.6 kg) golden light dried malt extract
0.5 lb. (227 g) Carapils® malt
0.5 lb (227 g) crystal malt (40 °L)
13 AAU Simcoe® hops (90 min.) (1 oz./28 g at 13% alpha acids)
6.5 AAU Simcoe® hops (30 min.) (0.5 oz./14 g at 13% alpha acids)
7.8 AAU CTZ (Columbus/Tomahawk®/Zeus) hops (30 min.) (0.5 oz./14 g at 15.5% alpha acids)
9.8 AAU Simcoe® hops (15 min.) (0.75 oz./21g at 13% alpha acids)
11.6 AAU CTZ (Columbus/Tomahawk®/Zeus) hops (15 min.) (0.75 oz./21 g at 15.5% alpha acids)
5.5 AAU Cascade hops (10 min.) (1 oz./28 g at 5.5% alpha acids)
0.5 oz. (14 g) Simcoe® hops (0 min.)
0.5 oz. (14 g) CTZ (Columbus/Tomahawk®/Zeus) hops (0 min.)
0.5 oz. (14 g) Amarillo® (dry hop)
0.5 oz. (14 g) Centennial (dry hop)
0.5 oz. (14 g) CTZ (Columbus/Tomahawk®/Zeus) hops (dry hop)
0.5 oz. (14 g) Simcoe® (dry hop)
Wyeast 1056 (American Ale) or White Labs WLP001 (California Ale) or Fermentis US-05
¾ cup corn sugar (if priming)

Step By Step
A day or two before brew day make a yeast starter if using a liquid strain. On brew day, steep the crushed grain in 2 gallons (7.6 L) of water as it warms to reach 150 °F (65.5 °C), approximately 20 minutes. Remove grains from the wort and rinse with 4 quarts (3.8 L) of hot water. Add the liquid to reach a total of 3 gallons (11.3 L) and bring to a boil. If you can do a full volume (5.5-gal./21-L) boil, it is recommended. Turn off heat, add malt extract, and stir until completely dissolved. Return to heat and add first hop addition. Continue to add hop additions at intervals per ingredents list. Cool the wort to room temperature, then top off with cold, filtered water to reach 5.5 gallons (21 L).

Pitch yeast starter and ferment at 64–70 °F (18–21 °C). Now follow the remaining instructions from the all-grain recipe.

Klaus Brau’s Kitchen Sink IPA

(5 gallons/19 L, all-grain)
OG = 1.060 FG = 1.013
IBU = 67 SRM = 8 ABV = 6.2%
by Matt Klausner • Aurora, Illinois
1st place at the Schooner Brew, Babble BrewOff &Drunk Monk Challenge

Ingredients
7 lbs. (3.18 kg) 2-row pale malt
3.5 lbs. (1.59 kg) Optic pale ale malt
2.9 lbs. (1.32 kg) Vienna malt
0.6 lb. (0.27 kg) crystal malt (40 °L)
14 AAU Magnum hops (60 min.) (1 oz./28 g at 14% alpha acids)
5 AAU Centennial hops (30 min.) (0.5 oz./14 g at 10% alpha acids)
5 AAU Centennial hops (15 min.) (0.5 oz./14 g at 10% alpha acids)
3.5 AAU Cascade hops (5 min.) (0.5 oz./14 g at 7% alpha acids)
0.5 oz. (14 g) Centennial hops (0 min.)
0.5 oz. (14 g) Cascade hops (0 min.)
0.5 oz. (14 g) Amarillo® hops (dry hop)
1 oz. (28 g) Simcoe® hops (dry hop)
0.5 oz. (14 g) Centennial hops (dry hop)
0.5 oz. (14 g) Cascade hops (dry hop)
White Labs WLP001 (California Ale) or Wyeast 1056 (American Ale) or Fermentis US-05 yeast
¾ cup corn sugar (if priming)

Step by Step
A day or two before brew day make a yeast starter if using a liquid strain. On brew day perform a single infusion mash. Mash in at 152 °F (67 °C) in 4.4 gallons (16.6 L) of water. Hold this temperature for 60 minutes. Sparge with 180 °F (82 °C) water to collect 7 gallons (26.5 L) of wort. Boil for 60 minutes, adding hops at times indicated. The goal is to get 5.5 gallons (21 L) into your fermenter. Chill the wort to 64 °F (18 °C). Ferment between 64–68 °F (18–20 °C). Transfer to a secondary vessel after primary fermentation is complete. Dry hop for one week with 0.5 oz. (14 g) Amarillo®, 0.5 oz. (14 g) Simcoe®, and 0.5 oz. (14 g) Centennial hops. After one week dry hop again with 0.5 oz. (14 g) Simcoe® and 0.5 oz. (14 g) Cascade hops. Prime to 2.3 volumes of CO2.

Klaus Brau’s Kitchen Sink IPA

(5 gallons/19 L, extract with grains)
OG = 1.060 FG = 1.013
IBU = 67 SRM = 8 ABV = 6.2%

Ingredients
7 lbs. (3.2 kg) golden light dried malt extract
0.5 lb. (0.23 kg) Vienna malt
0.5 lb. (0.23 kg) crystal malt (40 °L)
14 AAU Magnum hops (60 min.) (1 oz./28 g at 14% alpha acids)
5 AAU Centennial hops (30 min.) (0.5 oz./14 g at 10% alpha acids)
5 AAU Centennial hops (15 min.) (0.5 oz./14 g at 10% alpha acids)
3.5 AAU Cascade hops (5 min.) (0.5 oz./14 g at 7% alpha acids)
0.5 oz. (14 g) Centennial hops (0 min.)
0.5 oz. (14 g) Cascade hops (0 min.)
0.5 oz. (14 g) Amarillo® hops (dry hop)
1 oz. (28 g) Simcoe® hops (dry hop)
0.5 oz. (14 g) Centennial hops (dry hop)
0.5 oz. (14 g) Cascade hops (dry hop)
White Labs WLP001 (California Ale) or Wyeast 1056 (American Ale) or Fermentis US-05 yeast
¾ cup corn sugar (if priming)

Step by Step
A day or two before brew day make a yeast starter if using a liquid strain. On brew day, steep the crushed grain in 2 gallons (7.6 L) of water as it warms until a temperature of about 150 °F (65.5 °C) is reached, or approximately 20 minutes. Remove grains from the wort and rinse with 4 quarts (3.7 L) of hot water. Add the liquid to reach a total of 3 gallons (11.3 L) and bring to a boil. If you can do a full volume boil, 5.5 gallon (21 L), it is recommended. Turn off the heat, add the malt extract, and stir until completely dissolved. Return to heat and add first hop addition. Continue to add hop additions at intervals per ingredients list. Cool the wort to room temperature, then top off with cold, filtered water to reach 5.5 gallons (21 L). Pitch yeast starter.

Ferment between 64–68 °F (18–20 °C). Transfer to a secondary vessel after primary fermentation is complete.

Dry hop for one week with 0.5 oz. (14 g) Amarillo®, 0.5 oz. (14 g) Simcoe®, and 0.5 oz. (14 g) Centennial hops. After one week dry hop again with 0.5 oz. (14 g) Simcoe® and 0.5 oz. (14 g) Cascade hops. Prime to 2.3 volumes of CO2.


Leyland Cypress and Bambo – Fast Growing Border Options for North Carolina Yards

Have you even been home hunting and ignore a home because the adjacent homes are in clear view? Or perhaps you find a home that has everything you like but you step onto the back deck and see the neighbors waving? There are some low cost, fast growing solutions for adding a little separation between you and those living around you.

Now, I’m not trying to sound unsociable, but sometimes you just want a little “me time” and that doesn’t include the neighbors. And let’s face it, some of us have at least one neighbor we don’t care to see at all. So what to do? Fences can be expensive and detract from an otherwise beautiful yard. Border trees can sometimes take a decade or more before they provide any real privacy. Let me introduce you to a few options that grow well in North Carolina and are hardy through even the harshest winters for our climate.

A popular option is the Leyland Cypress. These attractive, fast growing evergreen trees provide year-round privacy. They grow several feet per year and can be shaped and pruned. Planting 4 to 6 feet apart, they will grow together much like a hedge. They are very hardy in even poor soil types. I have found them quite effective.

Another option, more compatible with larger properties is bamboo. Bamboo works well as a natural border where sound dampening is required and is one of the fastest growing plants it grows well in North Carolina – sometimes beyond the expectation of the homeowner. It is important to note that once planted, it is not easily eradicated, so it is only recommended as a permanent divider. It is also important to maintain it from encroaching into your neighbor’s yard.

So the next time you are house hunting, envision the possibilities of increased privacy on the property before you reject it. As with any changes to landscaping, always consult local zoning and home owners association regulations.


Untappd announces second annual beer festival at Bank of America Stadium

CHARLOTTE – Untappd, the leading social media app for beer and breweries, today announced the second annual Untappd Beer Festival, set to take place at Bank of America Stadium in Charlotte, North Carolina on Saturday, May 16, 2020. The festival connects craft beer fans with beers and breweries from around the world for a fun and engaging experience. Tickets are now on sale.

2020's Untappd Beer Festival will feature over 150 breweries, including Birdsong, Legion, Olde Mecklenburg, Red Clay, Triple C and Lenny Boy from The Charlotte Independent Brewers Alliance and many other Charlotte favorites. As well as, Other Half, Burial Brewing, New Anthem, The Bruery, Modern Times, Breakside Brewery, Botanist and Barrel, Upland Brewing, Wilmington Brewing and Urban Artifact.

This year's festival will be broken into two sessions, one at 11:30am EST and a second beginning at 5:30 p.m. EST. Each session will have a maximum capacity of 8,000 beer enthusiasts. While capacity for the festival in total is increasing from last year, the capacity per session is a significant reduction from last year's sold out festival, which held 13,000 attendees. This will create shorter lines for 2020 attendees and will foster an atmosphere of engagement with the exclusive list of breweries present.

"We are extremely excited to be a part of the Untappd Beer Festival for the second year in a row," said Phil Buchy, President of The Charlotte Independent Brewers Alliance. "Charlotte's beer scene is one of the best in the country and we are proud to be the host city of this event."

In response to feedback following Untappd's inaugural Beer Festival in 2019, the company hired Talia Spera as Untappd's Director of Festivals and Live Events. Spera joins from MGM Resorts International where she served as Executive Director of Entertainment at MGM Springfield. Spera's top priorities in her new role include strategic oversight for the company's Untappd Live! Division, as well as addressing the operational difficulties Untappd faced during its inaugural event to elevate the festival to a world-class experience for the Untappd community to enjoy.

"We learned a lot from listening to attendees and brewers after last year's festival and the path to creating an event that meets our own and our attendees' expectations was clear," said Trace Smith, President and COO of Untappd. "Talia brings a wealth of live events expertise to Untappd. She and her team have been diligent in addressing all shortcomings from last year's festival. We're confident we'll produce a world class experience for all involved."


Cooper seeks big debt package, pay hikes, Medicaid expansion

RALEIGH, N.C. (AP/WNCN) — North Carolina Democratic Gov. Roy Cooper is proposing a spending and borrowing spree that he said is critical to fulfilling education, health care, and infrastructure demands evident before the pandemic but exacerbated since.

Cooper pitched his two-year state budget plan on Wednesday.

He said the spending proposal is affordable and ensures North Carolina continues a vigorous recovery from the COVID-19 recession.

It includes large pay raises and bonuses for educators and a $4.7 billion bond package.

It’s the job of lawmakers to draw a budget bill that they hope he will sign.

Republican legislators and Cooper failed to enact a conventional budget two years ago.

“The people of North Carolina elected us again, so we’re back in the same situation that we were. And, we owe it to them to do the best that we can to find a path forward,” Cooper said. “Everything is on the table. Everything is up for negotiation.”

Cooper’s proposal does not raise taxes. It would spend $27.4 billion in the first year and $28.5 billion in the second year.

Though Cooper and Republican lawmakers could not agree on expanding Medicaid previously, he said three things have changed since the previous budget stalemate. He pointed to the pandemic causing people to lose their employer-sponsored health insurance, the most recent stimulus bill providing financial incentives to states that have not yet expanded Medicaid and changes that will take effect in July to how North Carolina manages the Medicaid system.

“We must get health care to more working people. And, the best way to do that is to expand Medicaid,” Cooper said.

Sen. Paul Newton (R-Cabarrus/Union) said he thinks the top priority should be cutting taxes.

“We think the number one thing we should do is reduce taxes. We clearly are collecting more revenue than we need to from North Carolinians,” he said, pointing to recent surpluses the state has experienced.

Newton proposed cutting the income tax rate from 5.25% to 4.99%. He also wants to increase the standard deduction, which would lead to more people paying no state income tax, and increase the tax deduction for children. His proposal also cuts corporate franchise taxes.

“We think people, individuals, North Carolinians, know how to best spend their money. Government is a poor substitute for you deciding how you want to spend your dollars,” Newton said.

CBS 17 asked Cooper about that proposal.

“I have concerns with it because I think it mostly benefits the wealthy. They’ve proposed an increase in the standard deduction, which I like better, because that helps more middle-income people,” Cooper said. “I think we can find some areas of negotiations in cutting taxes for people. We would rather help people that are on the margins and in the middle class.”

Here are additional highlights of the governor’s budget proposal:

  • Provides K-12 teachers 10 percent raises over two years.
  • $2,000 bonus for educators in May 2021.
  • Ensures all non-certified school employees receive a minimum of $15 per hour.
  • 7.5% pay increase for UNC and community college employees over two years plus $1,000 bonuses in Oct 2021 and Oct 2022.
  • 5% raise for state employees over two years plus $1,000 bonuses in Oct 2021 and Oct 2022.
  • $10.2 million to improve building security, including at the Department of Revenue and the state Supreme Court.

The $4.7 billion bond package would require approval from voters. Cooper wants the bond to be on the ballot this fall, but there’s uncertainty over how elections this year will unfold. The U.S. Census Bureau is delayed in getting data to states to draw electoral districs, potentially pushing elections to 2022.

The bond Cooper proposed includes the following:

  • $2.5 billion for public schools to address the over $8 billion in documented needs
  • $783 million for the UNC System, including $295 million for health and safety projects
  • $500 million for the Community College System
  • $430 million for Health and Safety projects across State Government
  • $460 million for Parks, Zoos, Museums, and Historic Sites

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North Carolina Brewers’ Cup Back for Second Year - Recipes

Knowledgeable Brewers with heart . . . tried and tested ingredients from Bavaria . . . and the world’s best brewing equipment are the components that make Red Oak Lagers the Best!

With over 60 years of experience between them, the Red Oak Brewers, known respectfully as the “Brew Crew”, are dedicated to their craft.

Led by German-born Brewmaster and Maltster, Chris Buckley steers the quality of North Carolina’s second oldest brewery.

Red Oak employs “Star Trek” technology, and strictly follows the 1516 Bavarian Law of Purity, created when Leonardo da Vinci was alive. Ask the Brewmaster about the process and he sounds like a scientist. He conducts the Tours discussing the process as you move around the Brewery catching the grainy smell of malted barley and seeing the gleam of tanks, kettles, pipes and 22-ton silos everywhere you look.


Watch the video: World Brewers Cup 2019 1st Runner up - Patrik Rolf - Sweden (January 2022).